An American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) fellow is "a member whose efforts on behalf of the advancement of science or its applications are scientifically or socially distinguished." Each nomination must be sponsored by three current fellows, one of whom must not be affiliated with the nominee's institution, and election is by the AAAS Council.
American Physical Society (APS) Fellowships recognize those who have made advances in knowledge through original research or have made significant and innovative contributions in the application of physics to science and technology. Each year, no more than one-half of one percent of APS's current membership is recognized by their peers for election to the status of Fellow. The hundred-year-old society numbers tens of thousands of physicists worldwide.
SPIE is the international society for optics and photonics founded to advance an interdisciplinary approach to the science and application of light. The Society advances emerging technologies through interdisciplinary information exchange, continuing education, publications, patent precedent, and career and professional growth. Each year SPIE recognizes accomplishments and meritorious service in the optics, photonics, optoelectronics, and imaging communities it serves. Fellows are members of distinction who have made considerable technical and scientific contributions in optics, photonics, optoelectronics, and imaging.
OSA promotes the generation, application and archiving of knowledge in optics and photonics. Since 1916, OSA has worked to bring together scientists, engineers, educators, technicians and business leaders in the fields of optics and photonics. OSA annually recognizes members who have served with distinction in the advancement of optics with election to the class of Fellow. This honor is reserved to no more than 10% of the total membership.